When we think of scientists and inventors, we often don’t think of the women who worked (and currently work) tirelessly in the male-dominated field, especially considering women were basically barred from attending universities to study.
These four Jewish women changed how we view the world–and made groundbreaking discoveries that we take for granted. Check them out below:
1. Vera Rubin
Rubin was the astronomer who discovered dark matter, a material that scientists cannot directly observe. Her incredible research resulted in this amazing discovery: Dark matter makes up 27% of the universe. Rubin passed away at the end of 2016 at age 88.
Franklin was a chemist who discovered the molecular structures of DNA. She also did tremendous research in the areas of crystallography and x-ray science.
3. Ruth Arnon
Arnon is an outstanding immunologists who has made groundbreaking changes in the medical field. Along with Michael Sela, she work in synthesizing a substance that aroused the body’s immune system, which is the first synthetic antigen was discovered.
Ayrton was a scientist and mathematician who did significant research and made profound discoveries on the electric arc and ripples. 1899, she was the first woman ever to read her own paper before the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Her paper was entitled “The Hissing of the Electric Arc.” She also invented a line-divider, designed to divide a line into any number of equal parts.